According to the well known SECI model[2], knowledge creation is a continuous and dynamic interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge (resources). This interaction is shaped by shifts between different modes of knowledge conversion involving actors and services in a facility or livelihood. These modes of knowledge conversion are modeled as capabilities.

It starts from "Socialization," when the actors are interacting and use services, gaining experience.

During "Externalisation" or articulation, the knowledge is made explicit, for example in drawings, models, their evaluations, etc.

This is followed by the "Combination" step during which explicit knowledge is converted into more complex sets of explicit knowledge, for example in plans, reports, work instructions.

The "Internalization" converts the actors’ explicit knowledge into the actors’ tacit knowledge. Then the process starts again with socialization and so on.

Resources, capabilities and value chains in the SECI model.

In the pattern we also included the value streams: Dialogue, Linking explicit knowledge, Learning by doing and Field building.

Thus the knowledge creation happens continuously as part of a cognitive self-transformation. It also happens in multiple concurrently operating teams or groups. The figure below represents both the operations of the actors involving the facility or livelihood (Arrow A) and the self-transformation (B) in which the team or group abandons obsolete knowledge and learns to create new things, improves its activities and deploys new tools and services (Arrow A’). The circular B arrow applies the SECI modes of knowledge conversion.

Self-transformation and operation as knowledge is converted according to the SECI model.

Source: Ontological Commitment for Participative Simulation (Goossenaerts and Pelletier, 2002)

1. Nonaka, I., Konno, N., Spring 1998. The Concept of "Ba": Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation, California Management Review 40(3) pp.40-54
2. Nonaka, I., Toyama, R., Konno, N., February 2000. SECI, ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation. Long Range Planning 33 (1), 5–34.